Studies Showing Ivermectin Is Effective Against COVID-19
Here is a list of compelling studies showing the efficacy of Ivermectin in treating COVID-19.
1. EClinicalMedicine [January 19, 2021]
TITLE: The effect of early treatment with Ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: a pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial
METHODS: “Consecutive patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for complicated disease attending the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra between July 31, 2020 and September 11, 2020 were enrolled. All enrollments occurred within 72 h of onset of fever or cough. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive ivermectin, 400 mcg/kg, single dose (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The primary outcome was supported by determination of the viral load and infectivity of each sample. The differences between ivermectin and placebo were calculated using Fisher’s exact test and presented as a relative risk ratio.”
CONCLUSION: “All patients recruited completed the trial (median age, 26 [IQR 19–36 in the ivermectin and 21–44 in the controls] years; 12 [50%] women; 100% had symptoms at recruitment, 70% reported headache, 62% reported fever, 50% reported general malaise and 25% reported cough). At day 7, there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positive patients (RR 0·92, 95% CI: 0·77–1·09, p = 1·0). The ivermectin group had non-statistically significant lower viral loads at day 4 (p = 0·24 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) and day 7 (p = 0·16 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) post treatment as well as lower IgG titers at day 21 post treatment (p = 0·24). Patients in the ivermectin group recovered earlier from hyposmia/anosmia (76 vs 158 patient-days; p < 0.001).”
“Among patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for severe disease receiving a single 400 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin within 72 h of fever or cough onset there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positives. There was however a marked reduction of self-reported anosmia/hyposmia, a reduction of cough and a tendency to lower viral loads and lower IgG titers which warrants assessment in larger trials.“
2. Chest Infections: Original Research [January 1, 2020]
TITLE: Use of Ivermectin Is Associated With Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019
METHODS: “Charts of consecutive patients hospitalized at four Broward Health hospitals in Florida with confirmed COVID-19 between March 15 and May 11, 2020, treated with or without ivermectin were reviewed. Hospital ivermectin dosing guidelines were provided, but treatment decisions were at the treating physician’s discretion. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included mortality in patients with severe pulmonary involvement, extubation rates for mechanically ventilated patients, and length of stay. Severe pulmonary involvement was defined as need for Fio2 ≥ 50%, noninvasive ventilation, or invasive ventilation at study entry. Logistic regression and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders.”
CONCLUSION: “Two hundred eighty patients, 173 treated with ivermectin and 107 without ivermectin, were reviewed. Most patients in both groups also received hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both. Univariate analysis showed lower mortality in the ivermectin group (15.0% vs 25.2%; OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96; P = .03). Mortality also was lower among ivermectin-treated patients with severe pulmonary involvement (38.8% vs 80.7%; OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.47; P = .001). No significant differences were found in extubation rates (36.1% vs 15.4%; OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 0.88-11.00; P = .07) or length of stay. After multivariate adjustment for confounders and mortality risks, the mortality difference remained significant (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.80; P = .03). One hundred ninety-six patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort. Mortality was significantly lower in the ivermectin group (13.3% vs 24.5%; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P < .05), an 11.2% (95% CI, 0.38%-22.1%) absolute risk reduction, with a number needed to treat of 8.9 (95% CI, 4.5-263).
“Ivermectin treatment was associated with lower mortality during treatment of COVID-19, especially in patients with severe pulmonary involvement. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.“
3. International Journal of Infectious Diseases [February, 2021]
TITLE: A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness
METHODS: “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the rapidity of viral clearance and safety of ivermectin among adult SARS-CoV-2 patients. The trial included 72 hospitalized patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were assigned to one of three groups: oral ivermectin alone (12 mg once daily for 5 days), oral ivermectin in combination with doxycycline (12 mg ivermectin single dose and 200 mg doxycycline on day 1, followed by 100 mg every 12 h for the next 4 days), and a placebo control group. Inclusion criteria were age 18–65 years; admitted to hospital within the last 7 days; presence of a fever (≥37.5 °C), cough, and/or sore throat; diagnosed positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR). Patients were excluded if they were allergic to ivermectin or doxycycline, or if there was the potential for a drug–drug interaction with ivermectin or doxycycline; had chronic illnesses (e.g., ischemic heart disease, heart failure, documented cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease); had received ivermectin and/or doxycycline in the last 7 days; were pregnant or lactating; or had participated in any other clinical trial within the last month.
“Patients underwent a physical examination for COVID-19-related symptoms and their vital signs were recorded (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate). Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained to confirm the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR on the day of enrolment, and then on days 3, 7, and 14. After day 14, patients were followed-up weekly until found to be test-negative.”
CONCLUSION: “The drugs ivermectin and doxycycline are commonly used in the developing world and have been found to be safe and effective in treating both parasitic and bacterial infections. The drugs are affordable (the full 5-day cost ranges from US$ 0.60 to US$ 1.80 for 5-day ivermectin) and readily available in Bangladesh, and thus are a highly attractive alternative for treating COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ivermectin alone or in combination with doxycycline in the treatment of adult COVID-19 patients presenting with mild symptoms. It was hoped that treatment early in the course of infection would decrease the viral load, shorten the duration of illness, and halt transmission.
“A 5-day course of ivermectin resulted in an earlier clearance of the virus compared to placebo (p = 0.005), thus indicating that early intervention with this agent may limit viral replication within the host. In the 5-day ivermectin group, there was a significant drop in CRP and LDH by day 7, which are indicators of disease severity. It is noteworthy that the viral nucleic acid Ct value (indicator of viral load) dropped significantly compared to the placebo group on day 7 and day 14. In the absence of co-morbidity, a 5-day course of ivermectin treatment showed faster SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance compared to the placebo arm (9 vs 13 days; p = 0.02).
“Although the study sample was too small (n = 72) to draw any solid conclusions, the results provide evidence of the potential benefit of early intervention with the drug ivermectin for the treatment of adult patients diagnosed with mild COVID-19. First, early intervention promoted faster viral clearance during disease onset, which might have prevented significant immune system involvement and hastened the recovery. Secondly, early intervention reduced the viral load faster, thus may help block disease transmission in the general population. A larger randomized controlled clinical trial of ivermectin treatment appears to be warranted to validate these important findings.“
4. Antiviral Research [June 2020]
TITLE: The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
METHOD: “Vero/hSLAM cells were maintained in Earle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM) containing 7% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (Bovogen Biologicals, Keilor East, AUS) 2 mM L-Glutamine, 1 mM Sodium pyruvate, 1500 mg/L sodium bicarbonate, 15 mM HEPES and 0.4 mg/ml geneticin at 37 °C, 5% CO2. Cells were seeded into 12-well tissue culture plates 24 h prior to infection with SARS-CoV-2 (Australia/VIC01/2020 isolate) at an MOI of 0.1 in infection media (as per maintenance media but containing only 2% FBS) for 2 h. Media containing inoculum was removed and replaced with 1 mL fresh media (2% FBS) containing Ivermectin at the indicated concentrations or DMSO alone and incubated as indicated for 0–3 days. At the appropriate timepoint, cell supernatant was collected and spun for 10 min at 6,000 g to remove debris and the supernatant transferred to fresh collection tubes. The cell monolayers were collected by scraping and resuspension into 1 mL fresh media (2% FBS). Toxicity controls were set up in parallel in every experiment on uninfected cells.”
CONCLUSION: “Taken together these results demonstrate that ivermectin has antiviral action against the SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate in vitro, with a single dose able to control viral replication within 24–48 h in our system. We hypothesise that this is likely through inhibiting IMPα/β1-mediated nuclear import of viral proteins, as shown for other RNA viruses; confirmation of this mechanism in the case of SARS-CoV-2, and identification of the specific SARS-CoV-2 and/or host component(s) impacted is an important focus future work in this laboratory. Ultimately, development of an effective anti-viral for SARS-CoV-2, if given to patients early in infection, could help to limit the viral load, prevent severe disease progression and limit person-person transmission. Benchmarking testing of ivermectin against other potential antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 with alternative mechanisms of action would thus be important as soon as practicable. This Brief Report raises the possibility that ivermectin could be a useful antiviral to limit SARS-CoV-2, in similar fashion to those already reported; until one of these is proven to be beneficial in a clinical setting, all should be pursued as rapidly as possible.”
5. The Journal of Antibiotics [June 12, 2020]
TITLE: Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen
METHODS: “We conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed database from January 1, 1970 up to April 14, 2020, using the following syntax constructed using the MeSH Database: (stromectol OR mectizan OR MK-933 OR “MK 933” OR MK933 OR eqvalan OR ivomec OR “bodipy ivermectin” OR (4″-5 AND 7-dimethyl bodipy propionyliverme) OR ivermectin-luminol OR (22 AND 23-dihydroavermectin B1 (a)) OR “dihydroavermectin b1a” OR “h2b1a avermectin” OR “ivermectin component b1a” OR (22 AND 23-Dihydro-5-O-demethylavermectin A1a) OR (22 AND 23-dihydroavermectin B1a) OR AI3-29390-X OR IVMPO4 OR (22 AND 23-dihydroavermectin B1 (b)) OR (22 AND 23-dihydroavermectin B1b) OR “h2b1b avermectin” OR “ivermectin component b1b” OR (22 AND 23-dihydroavermectin B (1) b) OR (avermectin a1a AND 5-O-demethyl-25-de (1-methylpropyl)-22,23-dihydro-25-propyl-)) AND (antiviral OR virus OR viral). Articles obtained were reviewed and included when considered appropriate. Also, papers cited in the reference lists of included articles were included when considered appropriate. The retrieved articles were filtered manually to exclude duplicates. There was no language restriction.”
CONCLUSION: “In a recent in vitro study, the Vero/hSLAM cells infected with the SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 virus were exposed to 5 µM ivermectin in 48 h, and a 5000-fold reduction in viral RNA compared with control was found. The results showed that treatment with ivermectin effectively kills almost all viral particles within 48 h. The study was the first to assess the antiviral effect of ivermectin on COVID-19. The authors acknowledged that the drug may have antiviral effects by inhibiting the importin (IMP) α/β receptor, which is responsible for transmitting viral proteins into the host cell nucleus. The authors proposed human studies to confirm the potential benefits of ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19. Although this study was the first to confirm the antiviral effect of ivermectin on COVID-19, other studies examined the antiviral effects of the drug on both RNA and DNA viruses, which are summarized in Table.”
6. Annals of Dermatology and Venereology [December, 2020]
TITLE: Ivermectin benefit: from scabies to COVID-19, an example of serendipity
METHODS: “In vitro virological study: Measurement of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of IVM and MOX on VeroE6 cells at increasing doses (0.05–10 μM) by RNA quantification and immunofluorescence; cell viability monitored.”
CONCLUSION: “Sixty-nine residents (including resident-1) and 52 EHPAD-A staff received IVM: median age 90 years (84–94), 78.3% women, 98.6% at least one comorbidity at risk of Severe COVID-19. 11 subjects presented probable or certain COVID-19 (7/69 residents and 4/52 staff, frequency 10.1%). Of the residents, 90.9% (10/11) had minimal COVID-19, without oxygen or hospitalization, no deaths. Among the 177 EHPADs in 77, 45 were included as controls, or 3062 residents (median age 86.2 years, 77.3% women). Of these, 22.6% [95% CI 16.3-28.9] had COVID-19 vs. 1.4% EHPAD-A with attributable mortality of 4.9% [95% CI 3.2-6.5] vs. 0% EHPAD-A. A major antiviral activity in vitro of IVM and MOX (EC 50 IVM 0.14 ± 0.02 μM and MOX 0.48 μM ± 0.08 μM) with preserved cell viability was observed.
“All the observed cases of COVID-19 in EHPAD-A “treated” by IVM [Ivermectin] were minor, without death during the study period, while residents of EHPAD “controls” (without IVM), matched according to age, number and socio-economic level, showed a higher frequency of COVID-19 and a higher mortality. IVM could have a protective role (since suggested in a US study), supported by the virological study. Despite the limitations –observational nature and absence of correlation demonstrated in vitro / in vivo–, the plausibility is sufficient to carry out a preventive cluster ECT by IVM and MOX in EHPAD.”
7. Preprint on Medrxiv (“med-archive”) [October 27, 2020]
TITLE: Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with Doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq
METHODS: “Randomized controlled study on 70 COVID-19 patients (48 mild-moderate, 11 severe, and 11 critical patients) treated with 200ug/kg PO of Ivermectin per day for 2-3 days along with 100mg PO doxycycline twice per day for 5-10 days plus standard therapy; the second arm is 70 COVID-19 patients (48 mild-moderate and 22 severe and zero critical patients) on standard therapy. The time to recovery, the progression of the disease, and the mortality rate were the outcome-assessing parameters.”
CONCLUSION: “Ivermectin with doxycycline reduced the time to recovery and the percentage of patients who progress to more advanced stage of disease; in addition, Ivermectin with doxycycline reduced mortality rate in severe patients from 22.72% to 0%; however, 18.2% of critically ill patients died with Ivermectin and doxycycline therapy. Taken together, the earlier administered Ivermectin with doxycycline, the higher rate of successful therapy.“
8. The Lancet (preprint) [August 21, 2020]
TITLE: ICON (Ivermectin in COvid Nineteen) Study: Use of Ivermectin Is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
METHODS: “This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized at four Broward Health hospitals in South Florida with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 between March 15, 2020 through May 11, 2020. 280 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of whom 173 were treated with ivermectin and 107 with usual care, were reviewed. Treatment decisions were at the discretion of the treating physicians. Severe pulmonary involvement at baseline was defined as need for either FiO2 ≥50%, noninvasive ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included subgroup mortality in patients with severe pulmonary involvement, extubation rates for patients requiring invasive ventilation, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders.”
CONCLUSION: “Univariate analysis showed lower mortality in the ivermectin group (15·0% versus 25·2%, OR 0·52, CI 0·29-0·96, P=0·03). Mortality was also lower among patients with severe pulmonary involvement treated with ivermectin (38·8% vs 80·7%, OR 0·15, CI 0·05-0·47, p=0·001), but there were no significant differences in successful extubation rates (36·1% vs 15·4%, OR 3·11 (0·88-11·00), p=0·07) or length of stay. After multivariate adjustment for confounders and mortality risks, the mortality difference remained significant (OR 0·27, CI 0·09-0·85, p=0·03). 194 patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort; mortality was again significantly lower in the ivermectin group (12.4% vs 25.8%, OR 0·41, CI 0·19-0·87, p=0·02).
“Interpretation: Ivermectin treatment was associated with lower mortality during treatment of COVID-19, especially in patients who required higher inspired oxygen or ventilatory support. These findings should be further evaluated with randomized controlled trials.”
9. Frontiers in Pharmacology
TITLE: Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
METHODS: “In March 2020, an expert panel called the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCC) was created and led by Professor Paul E. Marik with the goal of continuously reviewing the rapidly emerging basic science, translational, and clinical data in order to gain insight into and
develop a treatment protocol for, COVID-19. At the same time, many centers and groups employed a multitude of novel therapeutic agents empirically and within clinical trials, often during inappropriate time points during this now well-described multi-phase disease. Either as a result of these frequent
trial design failures or due to the lack of sufficient anti-viral or anti-inflammatory properties, nearly all trialed agents have proven ineffective in reducing the mortality of COVID-19. Based on a recent series of negative published therapeutic trial results, in particular the SOLIDARITY trial, this virtually eliminates any treatment role for remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, and mono-clonal antibody therapy.”
CONCLUSION: “In summary, based on the existing and cumulative body of evidence, we recommend the use of ivermectin in both prophylaxis and treatment for COVID-19. In the presence of a global COVID-19 surge, the widespread use of this safe, inexpensive, and effective intervention could lead to a drastic Review of the Emerging Evidence Supporting the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19 [FLCCC Alliance; Version 4; Nov. 19, 2020] 31 / 45 reduction in transmission rates as well as the morbidity and mortality in mild, moderate, and even
severe disease phases.
10. PLOS ONE [February 16, 2021]
TITLE: Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
MEETHODS: “A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted among healthcare workers of AIIMS Bhubaneswar, India, from September to October 2020. Profession, gender, age and date of diagnosis were matched for 186 case-control pairs. Cases and controls were healthcare workers who tested positive and negative, respectively, for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. Exposure was defined as the intake of ivermectin and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or vitamin-C and/or other prophylaxis for COVID-19. Data collection and entry was done in Epicollect5, and analysis was performed using STATA version 13. Conditional logistic regression models were used to describe the associated factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection.”
CONCLUSION: “Two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis at a dose of 300 μg/kg with a gap of 72 hours was associated with a 73% reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers for the following month. Chemoprophylaxis has relevance in the containment of pandemic.“
11. American Journal of Therapeutics
TITLE: Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection
METHODS: “We searched bibliographic databases up to April 25, 2021. Two review authors sifted for studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted and certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach and additionally in trial sequential analyses for mortality. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials involving 3406 participants met review inclusion.”
CONCLUSION: “Moderate-certainty evidence finds that large reductions in COVID-19 deaths are possible using ivermectin. Using ivermectin early in the clinical course may reduce numbers progressing to severe disease. The apparent safety and low cost suggest that ivermectin is likely to have a significant impact on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic globally.”
12. Future Virology [March 25, 2021]
TITLE: Exploring the binding efficacy of ivermectin against the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: an in silico approach
The commercial ivermectin formulation is comprised of a racemic mixture of -O-dimethyl-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a (ivermectin B1a) and 5-O-dimethyl-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b (ivermectin B1b) and both structures were used in this study. 3D structures of ivermectin homologs, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir were retrieved from PubChem compound library (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). The structures were converted in .pdb format for further use. The structure of each ligand of ivermectin obtained from the Pubchem library was converted to 3D conformer (Supplementary Figure 1A) with minimal energy using Frog2 server. The 3D conformers of both remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine were downloaded from PubChem library. All these 3D conformers were used in protein–ligand docking study.
Full-length amino acid sequences of human ACE2 receptor protein (Accession ID: AAT45083.1), Human TMPRSS2 (Accession ID: AAH51839.1), SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD; Accession ID: pdb|6M17|F) and SARS-CoV-2 NSP9 replicase enzyme (Accession ID: pdb|6W4B|A) were retrieved from NCBI protein database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Furthermore, the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 protease (Protein Data Bank [PDB] ID: 6Y2E [DOI: 10.2210/pdb6Y2E/pdb]) was obtained from the RCSB PDB (www.rcsb.org). The crystal structure was generated ab initio by using x-ray diffraction techniques with a resolution of 1.75Å. A resolution below 3.0Å suggests good structural detailing which is desirable for molecular docking studies. This structure was introduced to PyMOL software application, whereby water molecules present in the original crystal structure were separated and removed from the native structure of the protein such to avoid undesirable interferences. On the other side, the structure of S2 subunit of spike protein was separately modeled by using the amino acid sequence of S2 and PDB ID 6VYB as a template. Crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 in native form, the RDRP was acquired from PDB (ID: 6M71). 3D structure of target proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and humans are represented in Supplementary Figure 1B–H.
CONCLUSION: Developing an effective therapeutic against COVID-19 is currently the utmost interest to the scientific communities. The present study depicts comparative binding efficacy of a promising FDA-approved drug, ivermectin, against major pathogenic proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and their human counterparts involved in host–pathogen interaction. Herein, our in silico data have indicated that ivermectin efficiently utilizes viral spike protein, main protease, replicase and human TMPRSS2 receptors as the most possible targets for executing its antiviral efficiency. Therefore, ivermectin exploits protein targets from both virus and human, which could be the reason behind its excellent in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 as reported by Caly et al. . Ivermectin B1b isomers have been found to be the more efficacious molecule out of the two homologs. Intriguingly, comparison of the in silico efficiency of ivermectin with currently used anticorona drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir, indicated toward the potential of ivermectin to target the major pathogenic proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin is a popular antiparasitic drug and is also safe in children, younger adults, pregnant and lactating ladies. Development of pulmonary delivery of ivermectin through synthesis of better ivermectin formulation has been reported recently and this is expected to shorten the treatment duration and lead to better outcomes . It is noteworthy to mention that many anti-SARS-CoV-2s are now being tested for their efficacy in shaping the immune response of humans, through targeting the cell surface as well as intracellular toll-like receptors [34,35]. In this context, ivermectin could be an effective option as well. Considering all these facts, the present study explores the therapeutic targets of ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2 and enlightens the possibility of using this drug in COVID-19 clinical trials shortly.
13. Journal: American Journal of Therapeutics (Published June 2021)
TITLE: Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
METHODS: “Data were sourced from published peer-reviewed studies, manuscripts posted to preprint servers, expert meta-analyses, and numerous epidemiological analyses of regions with ivermectin distribution campaigns.”
CONCLUSION: “Meta-analyses based on 18 randomized controlled treatment trials of ivermectin in COVID-19 have found large, statistically significant reductions in mortality, time to clinical recovery, and time to viral clearance. Furthermore, results from numerous controlled prophylaxis trials report significantly reduced risks of contracting COVID-19 with the regular use of ivermectin. Finally, the many examples of ivermectin distribution campaigns leading to rapid population-wide decreases in morbidity and mortality indicate that an oral agent effective in all phases of COVID-19 has been identified.”
14. Journal: The Cureus Journal of Medical Science (Published January 15, 2022)
TITLE: Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching
METHODS: “We analyzed data from a prospective, observational study of the citywide COVID-19 prevention with ivermectin program, which was conducted between July 2020 and December 2020 in Itajaí, Brazil. Study design, institutional review board approval, and analysis of registry data occurred after completion of the program. The program consisted of inviting the entire population of Itajaí to a medical visit to enroll in the program and to compile baseline, personal, demographic, and medical information. In the absence of contraindications, ivermectin was offered as an optional treatment to be taken for two consecutive days every 15 days at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. In cases where a participating citizen of Itajaí became ill with COVID-19, they were recommended not to use ivermectin or any other medication in early outpatient treatment. Clinical outcomes of infection, hospitalization, and death were automatically reported and entered into the registry in real time. Study analysis consisted of comparing ivermectin users with non-users using cohorts of infected patients propensity score-matched by age, sex, and comorbidities. COVID-19 infection and mortality rates were analyzed with and without the use of propensity score matching (PSM).”
CONCLUSION: “In this large PSM study, regular use of ivermectin as a prophylactic agent was associated with significantly reduced COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and mortality rates.”
Feature image: Fvasconcellos
Here is a running list of evidence showing that there have been serious issues with using PCR testing (polymerase chain reaction) for detecting COVID-19.
Here is a running list of the ways people catch and transmit COVID-19, including the likelihood for each method.
Here is a look at how LOCK STEP, a 2010 scenario planning exercise from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, perfectly...
Here is a reminder that California's governor, Governor Newsom, sent sick elderly patients into nursing homes against doctors' warnings.
Here is a running list of evidence showing that Florida's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic has been significantly better than California's.